What is Monel?
Monel is a Nickel
Monel is a solid-solution binary alloy. As nickel and copper are mutually soluble in all proportions, it is a single-phase alloy. Compared to steel, Monel is very difficult to machine as it work-hardens very quickly. It needs to be turned and worked at slow speeds and low feed rates. It is resistant to corrosion and acids, and some alloys can withstand a fire in pure oxygen.
It is a very expensive alloy, with the cost ranging from 5 to 10 times the cost of copper and nickel, hence its use is limited to those applications where it cannot be replaced with cheaper alternatives. Compared to carbon steel, piping in Monel is more than three times as expensive.
What is Monel in?
It is commonly used in applications with highly corrosive conditions. Small additions of aluminum and titanium form an alloy (K-500) with the same corrosion resistance but with much greater strength due to gamma prime formation on aging.
Monel 400 – Monel 400 shows high strength and excellent corrosion resistance in a range of acidic and alkaline environments, and it is especially suitable for reducing conditions
Monel 401 – Alloy 401 is readily autogenously welded by the gas-tungsten-arc process. Resistance welding is a very satisfactory method for joining the material.
Monel 404 – The composition of Monel 404 is carefully adjusted to provide a very low Curie temperature, low permeability, and good brazing characteristics.
Monel 450 – This alloy exhibits good fatigue strength and has relatively high thermal conductivity. It is used for seawater condensers, condenser plates, distiller tubes, evaporator and heat exchanger tubes, and saltwater piping.
Monel K-500 – Monel K-500 combines the excellent corrosion resistance characteristic of Monel alloy 400 with the added advantages of greater strength and hardness.
Monel R-405 – Monel R-405 is the free machining version of Monel 400. It is a nickel-copper alloy with a controlled amount of sulfur added to provide sulfide inclusions that act as chip breakers during machining.
Monel is trademarked by Special Metals Corporation
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